The Himalayas are the youngest mountain ranges globally that support the lives of millions. Some of Asia’s largest rivers like Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yangtze and Indus originate from the Himalayan glaciers, and are the primary source of water and provide multiple freshwater ecosystem services (FES). However, climate change coupled with anthropogenic forcing has posed severe challenges in the long-term sustainability of these FES in the region. Himalayas are prone to multiple natural disasters, most severe of which are water-related disasters like cloudbursts, flash floods, landslides, etc. The simultaneous occurrence of two or more natural extremes (i.e., compound extremes) has a more significant impact on natural-human systems than individual extremes. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the significance and magnitude of the impacts of compound extremes in this region. The proposed project will integrate research on FES availability under long-term monsoon variability and water-related hazards in Himalayan regions (four catchments in three countries). The vulnerability and resilience of the freshwater ecosystem to the compound extreme will be analysed for informed decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of freshwater ecosystems. The comprehensive understanding gained in this project would address SDGs (2,6,11,13) in ensuring food and water security for sustainable and resilient living by adaptation to climate change through regional.