The transition from subsistence agriculture to agricultural commercialization is a poverty reduction trend in mountainous areas in developing countries. However, the negative impacts of commercialization on the environment and multidimensional poverty aspects have not been fully reflected. This study will be conducted in three mountainous Vietnam provinces to detect conflicts and build sustainable livelihood models for upland communities in developing countries. There are four stages in this research project. In the first stage, survey activities on livelihood models of upland farming communities. During this period, livelihood models will be analyzed based on three main focuses: poverty reduction effectiveness, commercialization of agriculture, and its impact on the environment. an analysis report will conduct to uncover conflicts between these three aspects of livelihood models. Then, an expert consultation workshop will be held to find solutions to upgrade farmers’ livelihood activities. The second stage will focus on support actions to improve livelihood models towards a sustainable livelihood model. The third stage will assess and synthesize livelihood models to discover optimal livelihood models for mountainous farmers’ livelihood. The final stage will be communication and policy recommendations to replicate the project’s models in other mountainous areas in Vietnam and developing countries.