The distribution and variability of chlorophyll-a bloom in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean using Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. Biodiversitas 18: 1546-1555. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events cause anomalously strong upwelling along the sourthen coast of Sumatra-Java leading to the bloom of chlorophylla. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied to the time series of the satellite-observed chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature (SST) and surface winds. Spatial eigen functions of the first EOF mode revealed the broad areas of coherent temporal variation in chlorophyll-a, SST and Ekman pumping, which was observed in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) region. The corresponding time series of principal component of the first EOF mode revealed a robust seasonal variation and relativley weak inter-annual variation. The second EOF mode exhibited a distinct inter-annual variation with the high surface chlorophyll-a concentration was observed along the southern coast of Sumatra-Java. This high chlorophyll-a concentration is co-located with the low SST, the positive Ekman pumping, and the positive wind-induced mixing. An EOF analysis applied on the seasonal time series showed interesting patterns. The leading EOF mode during the peak IOD season from September to November (SON) showed the high concentration of chlorophyll-a was restricted to the southern coast of Java and was co-located with low SST region. The corresponding time series of principal component of the leading EOF mode showed a significant correlation with the Dipole Mode Index (DMI), however it had no correlation with the Ekman pumping. It could be concluded that the chlorophyll-a bloom during the peak phase of the IOD event was generated by the alongshore upwelling-favorable winds in the preceding season.