This report presents the results of a research project which was implemented in three case areas in Mongolia and China, on pastoral vulnerability assessment. The project aimed to develop a conceptual framework for the integrated pastoral vulnerability assessment, and contribute inputs towards creation of effective adaptation strategies using advanced geospatial techniques integrating scientific data and community knowledge. The report highlighted various activities such as the project analysis process which consisted of using geospatial techniques to assess the pastoral vulnerability and statistical correlation analysis to assess the impacts of vulnerability on the socio-economic conditions of herding communities; using qualitative document analysis (QDA) to evaluate policy documents; and engagements in policy formulation, which included active participation by multiple academic researchers, policymakers, and representatives of local communities. The assessment revealed that climate change-related drought and aridity, as well as active pasture use and farming, are the main driving forces of pastoral vulnerability. Adaptation options and policy recommendations were also proposed to enhance the resilience and livelihoods of herding communities and potentially reduce vulnerability to climate change.