Rising ambient temperature is expected to increase incidence of bacillary dysentery (BD), but few studies have compared the temperature-BD effects of different age groups and cities in China, especially in a multi-city setting. We used city-specific data including BD cases and meteorological variables to determine the relationship between BD incidence and temperature at provincial level. Weekly BD disease surveillance data and meteorological variables were collected in all 16 prefecture-level cities in Anhui Province of China. Firstly, city-specific weekly mean temperature-BD incidence associations were estimated with Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model (DLNM). Secondly, city-specific estimates were pooled at province-level through multivariate meta-analysis. Also, we conducted subgroup analyses for ages (children <5 years old and population of other ages) and urbanization of cities (high and low level), respectively. In Anhui, BD morbidity risk increased with increasing weekly mean temperature. Relative risks (RR) at the 90th percentile (27.5 °C) versus the 50th percentile (17 °C) of weekly mean temperature were 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.75) and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.76, 2.32) for children <5 and population of other ages, respectively. The relative risk of high temperature on other ages group was higher than that of children under five years old (p = 0.006). Children under 5 in high urbanized cities appeared to be more vulnerable to the effects of ambient high temperature (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.92) than in low urbanized cities (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.46), the difference between two intervals was statistically significant (p = 0.044). This study suggests that high temperatures may be an important trigger of BD incidence, and especially lead to a substantial burden of BD for high urbanized cities in Anhui Province of China.