Climate change and its effects are widely visible in all sectors, including the scarce forest resources of Bangladesh and the dependent communities. This study was undertaken in the periphery of the National Sal (Shorea robusta) forest under the Tangail District of Bangladesh to understand and document the trend of climate change as well as the adaptation measures for coping with adverse situations that might arise in the future. The study was accomplished through a survey of 50 households and analysis of long-term meteorological database (1961–2010). The results show that forest and forest products have been reduced drastically. The changing trend of climate, along with anthropogenic activities, might have contributed to decrease in the forest resources and livelihood options of the community. A steady increase in maximum and minimum temperatures over time was noted where increment rate per year of maximum and minimum temperatures was 0.017°C and 0.011°C respectively. The minimum temperature during the winter had been slightly decreasing in December–January. An increase of rainfall at the rate of 68.7 mm per decade was estimated. The increase was remarkable during the monsoon months (June–October), while it decreased during winter (November–March) at the rate of 1.17 mm per decade. The results of the analysis of long-term climatic data on temperature and rainfalls have strongly been supported by perceptions and opinions of the community people. They have already adopted several adaptation measures such as changing planting time and using new technologies. Similarly, the government has undertaken several adaptation measures to protect the forest and environment. In the face of challenges of climate change and livelihoods, communities have strongly suggested undertaking some new adaptation measures, such as construction of water reservoirs, strengthening afforestation programmes through community approach, development of pest and disease-resistant varieties, and supply of high quality planting materials for conservation of resources and better livelihoods.