This chapter identifies current trends in key factors affecting land‐use systems, ecosystem services and characteristics. It explains how these are affecting the vulnerability of the Mongolian pastoral systems to climate and other stresses being experienced in the region over the past three decades. Various coping strategies in response to these stresses are discussed. The Mongolian nomadic pastoralists have traditionally adjusted their movements to environmental conditions in the region where they live. In regions with relatively greater climate variability and increased uncertainty, pastoral movements tend to be more chaotic and follow more opportunistic strategies to secure forage. The main elements for long‐term sustainable development of pastoral animal husbandry are to use natural pastures and hay and to maintain ecosystem integrity. Recent proposals for policy changes have suggested a modification to the major administrative boundaries to allow greater access to natural resources and seasonal grazing lands to better sustain the pastoral livelihood.