Unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (22 PAHs and 17 Me-PAHs) were examined in surface sediments collected from the Red River and four inner-city rivers of Hanoi City, Vietnam. Concentrations of total PAHs and Me-PAHs ranged from 52 to 920 (median 710) and from 70 to 2600 (median 1000) ng/g dry weight in samples of dry and wet seasons, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between total PAHs and organic carbon contents (Spearman’s ρ = 0.782; p < 0.05). PAHs were more abundant than Me-PAHs in all samples and dominated by 4–6 ring compounds. The most predominant PAHs were benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[b/j]fluoranthene, chrysene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and phenanthrene. Methylated derivatives of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and benz[a]anthracene were frequently detected. The patterns of PAHs indicated principal pyrogenic sources (notably gasoline exhaust) in this highly urbanized area. The occurrence of several PAHs were occasionally associated with adverse effects on benthic organisms of the inner-city rivers.