Comprehensive and updated information about polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in surface sediments from Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, is rather scarce. In this study, concentrations and profiles of 209 PCBs, 41 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were determined in sediment samples collected from the Red River and some inner-city rivers of Hanoi. Concentrations (ng/g dry weight, median and range) of pollutants decreased in the order: DBDPE (28; not detected ND – 59) ≈ PCBs (27; 1.7–50) > PBDEs (23; 0.20–61) > HBCD (1.2; ND – 5.2) > BTBPE (0.46; ND – 3.6) > BB-153 (0.004; ND – 0.014) > PBEB (ND). Pollutant levels in the inner-city river sediments were about one to two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in the Red River main stream sediments. Tri-to hexa-CBs are major homologs but detailed profiles vary between individual samples, reflecting source and/or seasonal variations. CB-11 and CB-209 were found at higher proportions in sediments than in technical PCB mixtures, suggesting their novel sources from pigments. Deca-BDE and DBDPE are the most predominant BFRs with an increasing trend predicted for DBDPE. A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted for these pollutants in sediments. Total PCBs and deca-BDE in a few inner-city river sediments may exhibit adverse effects on benthic organisms, but no serious risk was estimated in general.