Coastal regions are the residence of an enormously growing population. In spite of rich biodiversity, coastal ecosystems are extremely vulnerable due to hydroclimatic factors with probable impact on socio-economy. Since the last few decades, researchers and policymakers were attracted towards the existing water demand–resource relationship to predict its future trends and prioritize better water resource management options. Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) serves the wholesome purpose of modeling diverse aspects of decision analysis using water algorithm equations for proper planning of water resource management. In this study, future groundwater demand (domestic, agricultural, and livestock sector) in the fragile Sundarbans ecosystem was estimated considering different human population growth rates (high, low, and current) for 2011–2050. The results showed that the sustainability of coastal aquifer-dependent rural livelihood is expected to face great danger in the near future. The total groundwater demand is expected to rise by approximately 17% at the current growth rate in the study area to fulfill the domestic and agricultural requirement, while this value goes up to around 35% for a higher growth rate and around 4% for a lower growth rate. The impact of increasing groundwater demand was analyzed further to identify any socio-economic shifts in this region.