Algae provide an important role in aquatic food web and biochemical cycles in aquatic systems. They are affected by different environmental factors, such as pH, light, temperature and nutrients. This study aimed to describe the composition abundance and density of phytoplankton in the Hoa Binh reservoir during period from March to December 2011. Phytoplankton samples were collected monthly at four sampling stations. Result obtained showed that 6 phytoplankton classes were recorded: Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Dinophyceae and Cryptophyceae. Bacillariophyceae and Cyanobacteria were the most abundant phytoplankton families constituting 61% and 32% respectively of total phytoplankton community. Colony-forming and solitary ﬁlamentous-forming of Cyanobacteria group (e.g. Microcystis aeruginosa, M. wesenbergi and Oscillatoria sp. respectively) were a common component of phytoplankton community in the early summer and autumn periods (April and September). The total cell densities of phytoplankton varied seasonally from 84210 to 100×106 cell/L. Phytoplankton density varied with season with high values in early summer and winter (April and December) and low values in summer – autumn periods (from June to October).