This chapter examines heat-related health effects and suggests public health adaptation strategies to heat waves in China. Due to climate change and urban heat island effects, a future increase in extreme heat events could lead to excess heat-related mortality and morbidity in urban populations. However, the risk of heat exposure is not evenly distributed. Some demographic groups are more prone to heat-related illnesses, such as outdoor workers, children, the elderly, and people with preexisting health conditions. Furthermore, population aging and acclimatization limits both present challenges for adapting to a warmer climate in China. Considering these challenges, this chapter identifies several adaptation strategies to address the health impacts of heat waves and discusses the issues of implementing these policies and measures. For example, heat-health action plans require the government to coordinate with supporting agencies for deciding the timing of activation and deactivation. Heat-health warning systems can also be developed based on temperature threshold, but this threshold varies in different cities. During heat waves, real-time surveillance data can provide early detection of heat-related health threats. In addition, the government can use heat vulnerability mapping to identify populations susceptible to heat waves and provide adequate healthcare and social services for these vulnerable groups. Identifying vulnerable populations alone is insufficient, as effective risk communication is also required for behavior change, including personal heat exposure reduction strategies. Finally, climate-sensitive urban planning such as optimizing building design and urban greening would alleviate the adverse health impacts of heat waves in China.