The Paris Agreement requires Parties to prepare, communicate, and maintain successive Nationally Determined Contributions. Bangladesh , Nepal and Sri Lanka have submitted their NDCs which include mitigation as well as sector actions linked to adaptation and loss and damage. However, the countries face different faps and needs for the implementation of these commitments such as gaps and needs among others in laws and policies, institutional and technical capacity, means of implementation. This paper identifies gaps and needs in Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka for the implementation of adaptation and loss and damage components through legal and policy analysis, expert interviews, small group consultations, national and regional multi-stakeholder workshops. The research highlights the gaps and needs on laws and policies related to the implementation of NDCs, capacity (technical, financial, institutional and others), institutional and coordination setup, data access, research, and knowledge products as well as on measurement, reporting, and verification of adaptation and loss and damage actions, and gender-responsiveness on climate change policies. The research recommends to align, integrate, and build synergies between NDCs, National Adaptation Plans, Sustainable Development Goals, the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction, and other related processes; to develop data and knowledge sharing mechanisms to address the identified technical and knowledge gaps; and to develop common national monitoring and evaluation systems for climate change adaptation and loss and damage related processes.