This paper presents available evidence for climate change impacts in India and discusses issues and barriers that make mainstreaming adaptation difficult in agriculture and water sectors in India. Evidence suggests a wide range of climate change impacts in Indian agriculture and water sectors. Most important ones being severe reduction in crop production due to a combination of factors such as warming, incidence of pests and diseases, changes in rainfall patterns, and reduction in freshwater sources for irrigation. Information that is useful for initiating action by various stakeholders involved in agriculture and water sectors is very poor. Lack of vulnerability assessment tools, awareness at the extension level, focused research, financial and human resources, political and institutional rigidity, inaccessible data, and absence of proper knowledge management systems are some of the key barriers. Overcoming these barriers requires a set of policies, institutional reforms and investments in capacity building, and deploying tools for vulnerability and risk assessments and for monitoring and evaluating adaptation interventions.