Peaches are known for their palatable flavor and abundant nutrients. However, peaches are perishable, and the existing preservation techniques for peaches are still immature. To further extend the shelf life and prevent nutrient loss of perishable peaches under ambient temperature in summer (approximately 25–32 °C), we conducted experiments wrapping peaches (Prunus persica cv ‘Baihua’) in single- and composite-treated vegetal fibrous papers that contained calcium carbonate, phytic acid, Na-alginate and vitamin C. The pathogenic fungi that primarily caused peach decay during storage belonged to the genera of Penicillium, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Rhizopus. After analyzing quality attributes, including weight loss, firmness, soluble sugar content, respiration rate, relative electric conductivity, malonaldehyde content, peroxidase activity and the decay index, we proved that vitamin C within the preservative paper greatly contributes to peach preservation. Combined with phytic acid and Na-alginate, the composite vitamin C preservative papers played significant roles in delaying fruit senescence, and 0.4% (w/v) vitamin C preservative paper with 1% Na-alginate could maintain quality and extend shelf life with the best effect. This preservation technique significantly postponed the respiration peak by 2–3 days and is a significant contribution to contemporary commercial production.