The carbon use efficiency (CUE) of grassland, a ratio of net primary production (NPP) to gross primary productivity (GPP), is an important index representing the capacity of plants to transfer carbon from the atmosphere to terrestrial biomass. In this study, we used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to calculate the global grassland CUE, and explore the spatiotemporal dynamic of global grassland CUE from 2000 to 2013 to discuss the response to climate variations. The results showed that the average annual CUE of different grassland types follows an order of: open shrublands > non-woody grasslands > closed shrublands > woody savannas > savannas. The higher grassland CUE mainly occurred in the regions with cold and dry climate. By contrast, the regions with the lower grassland CUE were mostly in warm and wet environments. Moreover, the CUE exhibited a globally positive correlation with precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature. Therefore, the grassland CUE has considerable spatial variation associated with grassland type, geographical location and climate change.