This study assessed the climate variability, vulnerability of Homegardens (HGs), and elements that influence the adaptation decisions of homegardeners in selected regions in South Asia. Study sample comprised 148 HGs in three sites in Sri Lanka, 120 HGs in Bangladesh and 100 HGs in India. Variability in temperature and rainfall in the sites from 1961 to 2010, and changes in the onset of cultivating seasons during two decades (1991-2010) were analyzed. The socio-economic data of the homegardeners, agronomic data of HGs, diversity of trees and farm animals, and adaptation strategies used in HGs for perceived variability in climate during 1991-2010 were collected using a questionnaire survey. The annual rate of rise in night-time minimum temperature in the three Sri Lankan study sites (0.012 to 0.022 °C; R2 = 0.251 to 0.589; p<0.05) and in the Indian study site (0.041 °C; R2 = 0.324; p<0.05) more pronounced than the increase in day-time maximum temperature. The average annual day-time minimum and maximum temperatures in Bangladesh study site did not show a significant variation (p>0.05). The annual cumulative rainfall did not reveal any discernible trend in all study sites (p>0.05). From 1991-2010, 85 % of Maha seasons in Sri Lanka (September to February) have not been set on time (p<0;05), whereas in Bangladesh and Indian study sites, the onset of the majority of cultivating seasons was not delayed. The HGs in Sri Lankan sites were mainly crop-based while those from India and Bangladesh had a rich blend of crops and farm animals. The homegardeners have made changes to planting dates of annual crops, agronomic practices, technology used (new annual crop varieties and irrigation equipment) and soil and water conservation measures to adapt to climate variability. Probit analysis showed that the type of employment, age, education level of the household head, experience in farming, HG size (extent), presence of farm animals and tree density of the HGs have significantly influenced the decision of homegardeners to adopt any adaptation strategy. Homegardeners who perceived climate variability were more adaptable and adaptation strategies were location specific.