Water resources and agriculture play an important role in Vietnam. Under climate change conditions, these sectors are considered as the most influenced. This paper aims to review the impacts and adaptations in both water resources and agriculture in two largest river systems in Vietnam: Mekong and Red rivers. A number of water elements influenced by climate change are water flows, flooding situation, saltwater intrusion and water demand for irrigation, as well as a number of agriculture aspects effected are resources and land environment; planting seasons; crops yield; and pest and diseases. This review also presents the adaptation frame for water resources and agriculture in Mekong and Red River Deltas.