Indonesia has the largest extent of mangroves globally, supporting communities at the local scale while contributing to climate change mitigation at the global scale. Yet, they are highly threatened by multiple anthropogenic and natural stressors. Thus, in this study, we aim to qualitatively assess Indonesia’s mangrove ecosystems by conducting a literature review applying the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. By using the framework, we identified multiple stressors and existing management efforts in 27 provinces of Indonesia. For instance, we identified aquaculture expansion as the most frequented driver of mangrove loss leading to the conversion of mangroves to shrimp farms in 20 provinces. In terms of responses, mangrove rehabilitation and community-based management have a long history in Indonesia while economic valuation and payment of ecosystem services are yet to be established across the country. The identification of multiple stressors and/or threats is instrumental to addressing the causes of degradation of globally-important mangroves in Indonesia if effectively translated into policies, which remains a future challenge.