Non-Economic Loss and Damage (NELD) could constitute a major proportion of the total loss and damage caused by any climate-related disasters. Despite this, most NELD has not been well measured and reported in most post-disaster reports and databases and has often not been given the attention it deserves in most disaster risk assessments and risk reduction interventions. Issues include a lack of proper recognition among the stakeholders engaged in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation of the value that society attaches to NELD, and a lack of simple methods to identify, prioritize and measure NELD. Keeping these barriers in view, this research aimed to develop an assessment framework to identify and prioritize NELD in key vulnerable sectors and make policy recommendations for addressing NELD. In this paper, results from case studies conducted in Japan and Bangladesh, two of the five project countries, are presented for a better understanding on this subject. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify and prioritize key NELD caused by climate-related disasters and to identify important risk reduction practices that could address NELD. The findings show that mental health disorders can be one common and important NELD in both Bangladesh and Japan despite their contrasting developmental situations. Inaccessible sanitation and waterborne diseases were Bangladesh-specific NELD, while poor risk governance and risk communication between local governments and communities were Japan-specific NELD.