Chinese agriculture is dominated by smallholder decentralized operations, which are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. In order to achieve the best possible livelihoods, smallholder farmers often proactively adopt technologies to improve their resilience to climate extremes. Relying on the context of Climate-Smart Agriculture, this project focuses on the group of smallholder farmers in the arid and fragile regions in China, through regional climate risk assessment and local agricultural production circumstances investigation, to clarify the impacts and risks of climate change on agricultural systems in the region; dialogue with local farmers to understand their adaptation technologies needs; and build the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to cope with climate change and enhance their resilience to climate risks. In addition, some international and domestic experts are invited to CSA workshop and conduct training activities on innovative technologies on CSA, and village cadres and large crop growers are involved in the training program to raise farmers’ awareness capacity through the influence and radiation of pioneer participants. The project results can comprehensively improve the climate risk resilience capability of smallholder farmers and provide reference countermeasures for risk management of relevant local administrations.