The temporal aspects of environmental change are becoming increasingly more noticeable in the Lower Mekong Basin, which is applying pressure on the agriculture-based livelihoods of communities living along the Mekong River mainstream. This investigation assessed the historic temporal seasonal variability in Kratie Province, Cambodia, and identified strategies subsequently developed by local communities to adapt to temporal changes in weather patterns. A mixed method approach was adopted, combining historical hydrometeorological data with participatory seasonal calendars and daily routine diaries. Hydrometeorological data were
analysed with respect to changes in average interannual and annual rainfall and the onset and cessation of the monsoon. Seasonal calendars were compiled from nine workshops across four villages in the Kratie Province, and daily diaries were collected from seven individuals across three villages. The results showed that patterns in rainfall, flooding, and drought have become more variable due to the impacts of environmental change; a phenomenon that will likely continue into the future. Without effective adaptation, changing weather patterns will continue to adversely impact the communities in the region due to their reliance on predictable seasonality for crop cultivation (primarily rice and maize). Women were among the most negatively impacted due to the types of activities undertaken throughout the year. Individuals and communities in the study region have already developed a number of approaches to mitigate these impacts. This research also reiterated the importance of incorporating both local knowledge and scientific data to gain the most accurate understanding of the impacts of environmental change in a given region.