Greening in urban areas and forests can provide people with valuable environmental and social benefts. Active involvement by local stakeholders is crucial for efective tree conservation. Our study focused on the past and current uses, management, and conservation of old-growth fukugi (Garcinia subelliptica) trees from the perspective of local stakeholders in rural homesteads on Ryukyu Archipelago, a small island archipelago in Japan. We conducted semi-structured interviews with local communities and local leaders on fve small islands and in two hamlets on mainland Okinawa. We found that residents highly valued fukugi homestead trees as windbreaks. Other benefts derived from these trees included traditional dyeing material and green manure. Problems associated with these trees, such as fallen leaves and fruits, and the potential risk of injury caused by strong winds have jeopardized conserving the existing trees. Our results indicate that the value of trees to human wellbeing and society has changed dramatically from largely providing provisioning services meeting local people’s basic needs to regulating services, e.g., protecting the houses from natural disasters, and cultural services. Opinions in terms of services and disservices difered among islands and stakeholders. Accordingly, decision-makers should consider these changes/diferences when developing conservation policies. We highlight several alternative uses for old-growth trees, such as tourist attractions, and propose a multi-stakeholder conservation strategy, which will be important for the sustainable management of fukugi trees.