Nine new sulfated triterpene glycosides, magnumosides A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), A4 (4), B1 (5), B2 (6), C1 (7), C2 (8) and C4 (9) as well as a known colochiroside B2 (10) have been isolated from the tropical Indo-West Pacific sea cucumber Neothynidium (=Massinium) magnum (Phyllophoridae, Dendrochirotida) collected in the Vietnamese shallow waters. The structures of new glycosides were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass-spectrometry. All the isolated new glycosides were characterized by the non-holostane type lanostane aglycones having 18(16)-lactone and 7(8)-double bond and differed from each other by the side chains and carbohydrate moieties structures. Magnumoside A1 (1) has unprecedented 20(24)-epoxy-group in the aglycone side chain. Magnumosides of the group A (1–4) contained disaccharide monosulfated carbohydrate moieties, of the group B (5, 6)—tetrasaccharide monosulfated carbohydrate moieties and, finally, of the group C (7–9)—tetrasaccharide disulfated carbohydrate moieties. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds 1–9 against mouse spleen lymphocytes, the ascites form of mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma DLD-1 cells as well as their hemolytic effects have been studied. Interestingly, the erythrocytes were more sensitive to the glycosides action than spleenocytes and cancer cells tested. The compounds 3 and 7 significantly inhibited the colony formation and decreased the size of colonies of DLD-1 cancer cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Moreover, the synergism of effects of radioactive irradiation and compounds 3 and 7–9 at subtoxic doses on proliferation of DLD-1 cells was demonstrated.