After addressing the definition of drought, we constructed a fundamental network of drought monitoring and research among project member countries. We shared and improved drought monitoring data and capabilities, and built a network data bank. Validation of Advanced Microwave Scattering Radiometer (AMSR-E) soil moisture data and its analysis were successfully done in certain target areas and member countries of the Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI). We also proposed a numerical modeling concept for a drought early warning system. Based on these results, we held two useful training courses for drought and climate change studies in Tokyo during 2010 and 2011, in which numerous scientists and operators of AWCI member countries learned project results.