Microplastics have received special attention due to their potential risks to environments. However, data on microplastics in estuaries of the Southeast Asian region is still insufficient. This study investigated the abundance and characteristics of microplastics in the sediment and surface water of the Chao Phraya River Estuary, Thailand. Concentrations of heavy metals extracted from microplastics were also reported. The abundance of microplastics in surface water and sediment was 48 ± 8 items/m3 and 39 ± 14 items/kg, respectively. Microplastics with small sizes of 0.05–0.3 mm were predominant in all collected samples. Polypropylene and polyethylene particles were the most abundant in the surface water and sediment, respectively. Toxic metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) were found in microplastics from surface water samples. Since Chao Phraya River Estuary is an important aquaculture zone in Thailand, the presence of microplastics in this area may severely impact on aquaculture and human health.