The project is a regional research project aimed to understand the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects on urban energy consumption and their implications for microclimate adaptation and mitigation strategies for planning policy in major Southeast Asian cities using Bangkok and Bandung as the case studies. It aims to mainstream microclimate considerations in urban planning policy in Southeast Asian cities. The study elaborates on three main research questions. The first question is concerned with the pattern and characteristics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) in Southeast Asian cities. The second question explores the association between UHI and the current policy mitigation and adaptation. The third question is related to the effects of UHI on the daily lives of urban residents.