Hydroclimate extreme events —floods and droughts— pose a serious threat to the socio-economic well-being of societies in developing countries such as Indonesia and India. This is exacerbated by high levels of poverty, population, poor infrastructure and governance and, climate variability. However, there is significant regional variability of societal vulnerability and resiliency in these countries – and understanding this is important for enabling enhanced resiliency for entire countries, and this is the central motivation for this proposal. To this end, the proposal has four broad objectives: (i) analyze the space-time variability of extreme rainfall and temperature events and, the large-scale climate drivers in the ocean-atmosphere-land system; (ii) translate these understandings to hydrologic variability in space and time; (iii) investigate the variability of climate and hydrologic extremes in a warmer climate; (iv) identify existing systems for managing floods and droughts in urban, agriculture and water resources management contexts – and, develop strategies for adaptation and mitigation of hydroclimate extremes; also develop a simple visualisation tool to assist decision makers relating hydrologic extremes and societal resilience. This approach will be developed at two representative study regions – Serayu River basin in Indonesia and Krishna River Basin in India.