Rangelands located in arid and semi-arid region are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The objective of this research project is to assess vulnerability and its impacts on socio-economy of pastoral society and to formulate adaptation options for the selected rangelands. The analysis process consisted of (1) using geospatial techniques to assess the pastoral vulnerability; (2) using statistical correlation analysis to assess the impact of vulnerability on the grazing societies’ socio-economic conditions; (3) using qualitative document analysis (QDA) to evaluate policy documents; and (4) engaging in policy formulation, which included active participation by multiple academic researchers, policymakers, and representatives of the local community. The pastoral vulnerability assessment results reveal that drought, pasture usage and normalized difference vegetation index are the main drivers of vulnerability. Pastoral vulnerability increases the breeding stock’s miscarriage rate and causes livestock loss, which may affect the socio-economics of the herder community, devaluing herders’ labour and shortening their life expectancy. Two provinces’ policies were reviewed, and the findings suggest that aligning development and sectoral policies with climate change responses (i.e. adaptation and mitigation) to enhance the adaptive and transformative capacity of rural communities is important. The adaptation options and policy recommendations for two provinces are identified to enhance the resilience of livelihoods to climate change to potentially reduce vulnerability to anthropogenic climate change and advance development.