The APN Science Bulletin (e-ISSN 2522-7971) is a peer-reviewed digital publication that features research and capacity building projects funded by APN. The Science Bulletin is intended for readers from both science and policymaking communities, as well as young scientists in the Asia-Pacific region who are keen on issues related to global environmental change, sustainable development and the science of sustainability.

This is an open-access journal. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. The publication is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

All opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of APN. While the information and advice in this publication are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the editors nor APN accepts any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. APN and its member countries make no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

The use of geographic names, boundaries and related data on maps, and in lists and tables within this publication are not warranted to be error-free, nor do they imply any endorsement by APN.

Articles of APN Science Bulletin is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) licence.

Managing Editor

  • Dr Linda Anne Stevenson, Head of Knowledge Management and Scientific Affairs; Deputy Head of Development and Institutional Affairs, APN Secretariat

Editorial Advisory Committee

  • Hasan Abdullah, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh
  • Edwin Abucay, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Philippines
  • Muhammad Amjad, Global Change Impact Studies Centre, Pakistan
  • Richard Aquino, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Vivek Anand Asokan, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan
  • Romnick Baliton, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Philippines
  • Amit Batar, Hokkaido University, Japan
  • Nico Caltabiano, World Meteorological Organization, Switzerland
  • Kalpana Chaudhari, Shah and Anchor Kutchhi Engineering College; Institute for Sustainable Development and Research, India
  • Buenaventura Dargantes, Retired Professor of Socio-ecology, Visayas State University, Philippines
  • Chamindu Deepagoda, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
  • Temitope Egbelakin, The University of Newcastle, Australia
  • Mohan Geetha, University of Toyama, Japan
  • Manish Kumar Goyal, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India
  • Loc Huu Ho, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
  • Ngoc Son Ho, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietnam
  • Ha Hoa, Thai Nguyen University Of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietnam
  • Trung Nguyen Huy, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietnam
  • Kiran Jalem, Central University of Jharkhand, India
  • Wajid Nasim Jatoi, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Jun Jian, Dalian Maritime University, China
  • Joni Jupesta, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Japan
  • Khairunnisa binti Ahmad Kamil, UiTM Perlis Branch, Malaysia
  • Bidur Khadka, Kathmandu Forestry College, Nepal
  • Seung Hee Kim, Chapman University, United States of America
  • Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India
  • Tonni Kurniawan, Xiamen University, China
  • Heri Kuswanto, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia
  • Leila Landicho, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Philippines
  • Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
  • Junaid Alam Memon, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan
  • Manoranjan Mishra, Khallikote University, India
  • Sher Muhammad, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal
  • Muzzneena Ahmad Mustapha, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Tirthankar Nag, International Management Institute Kolkata, India
  • Le Van Nam, University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, Vietnam
  • Rajiv Pandey, Forest Research Institute, India
  • Worradorn Phairuang, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
  • Joko Prayitno, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Indonesia
  • Saeed Ahmad Qaisrani, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Yuhan Rao, North Carolina State University, United States of America
  • Kabir Rasouli, University of Calgary, Canada
  • Muhammed Hassan Raza, MNS-University of Agriculture, Pakistan
  • Mohamed Esham Sabaragamuwa, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
  • Muhammad Sajjad, Hong Kong Baptist University, China
  • Albert Salamanca, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI-Asia), Thailand
  • I Putu Santikayasa, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
  • Karen See, National Economic and Development Authority, Philippines
  • Ayyoob Sharifi, Hiroshima University, Japan
  • Victor Shinde, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
  • Rudra Bahadur Shrestha, Winrock International, Nepal
  • Srivatsan Vijayaraghavan, National Univ of Singapore, Singapore
  • Katharina Waha, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia
  • Shiye Zhao, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan

Editorial Team

  • Xiaojun Deng, Naomi Young, and Nafesa Ismail, APN Secretariat