The APN Science Bulletin (e-ISSN 2522-7971) is a peer-reviewed digital publication that features research and capacity building projects funded by APN. The Science Bulletin is intended for readers from both science and policymaking communities, as well as young scientists in the Asia-Pacific region who are keen on issues related to global environmental change, sustainable development and the science of sustainability.

This is an open-access journal. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. The publication is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

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All opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of APN. While the information and advice in this publication are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the editors nor APN accepts any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. APN and its member countries make no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

The use of geographic names, boundaries and related data on maps, and in lists and tables within this publication are not warranted to be error-free, nor do they imply any endorsement by APN.

Articles of APN Science Bulletin is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) licence.

Citation: Stevenson, L. A., (Ed.). (2021). APN Science Bulletin (11). Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN).

Managing Editor

  • Dr Linda Anne Stevenson, Head of Knowledge Management and Scientific Affairs; Deputy Head of Development and Institutional Affairs, APN Secretariat

Editorial Advisory Committee

  • Edwin Abucay, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Philippines
  • Ferdous Ahmed, International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Bangladesh
  • Adrianus Amheka, Kupang State Polytechnic, Indonesia
  • Glenn Banaguas, Dela Salle University, Philippines
  • Amit Batar, Hokkaido University, Japan
  • Wynn Chi Nguyen Cam, RSP Architects Planners & Engineers, Singapore
  • Kalpana Chaudhari, Institute for Sustainable Development and Research, India
  • Josefina Dizon, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Philippines
  • Mohan Geetha, The University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Virendra Goswami, Environment & Peace Foundation, India
  • Maharani Hapsari, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
  • Aser Javier, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines
  • Rajendra Khanal, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
  • M. Danesh Miah,University of Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Binaya Kumar Mishra, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan
  • Sher Muhammad, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal
  • Muzzneena Ahmad Mustapha, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Dileswar Nayak, Navsari Agricultural University, India
  • Hong Quan Nguyen, Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
  • Masaaki Okamoto, Kyoto University, Japan
  • Worradorn Phairuang, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
  • Saeed Ahmad Qaisrani, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Kabir Rasouli, University of Calgary, Canada
  • Zulfaqar Sa’adi, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Albert Salamanca, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI-Asia), Thailand
  • Victor Shinde, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
  • Rudra Bahadur Shrestha, SAARC Agriculture Centre, Bangladesh
  • Krishna Solanke, Central Agricultural University, India
  • Pinar Temocin, Hiroshima University, Japan
  • Jamba Tobden, Royal University of Bhutan, Bhutan
  • Van Thu Tran Thi Van, Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
  • Thushara Wickramaarachchi, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
  • Ying Zhang, University of Sydney, Australia
  • Shiye Zhao, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan

Editorial Team

  • Xiaojun Deng, Christmas Uchiyama, and Nafesa Ismail, APN Secretariat