The APN Science Bulletin is a peer-reviewed digital publication that features research and capacity building projects funded by APN. The Science Bulletin is intended for readers from both science and policymaking communities, as well as young scientists in the Asia-Pacific region who are keen on issues related to global environmental change, sustainable development and the science of sustainability.

This is an open-access journal. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.

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All opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of APN. While the information and advice in this publication are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the editors nor APN accepts any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. APN and its member countries make no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

The use of geographic names, boundaries and related data on maps, and in lists and tables within this publication are not warranted to be error-free, nor do they imply any endorsement by APN.

Articles of APN Science Bulletin is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) licence.

Citation: Stevenson, L. A., (Ed.). (2020). APN Science Bulletin (10). Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN).

ISSN 2522-7971 (Digital)

Managing Editor

  • Dr Linda Anne Stevenson, Head of Knowledge Management and Scientific Affairs; Deputy Head of Development and Institutional Affairs, APN Secretariat

Editorial Advisory Committee

  • Ferdous Ahmed, International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Bangladesh
  • Mukhtar Ahmed, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
  • Edris Alam, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Catherine Roween Almaden, Xavier University, Philippines
  • Glenn Banaguas, Dela Salle University, Philippines
  • Alka Bharat, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, India
  • Wynn Chi Nguyen Cam, RSP Architects Planners & Engineers, Singapore
  • Dinh-Toi Chu  , Hanoi National University of Education, Viet Nam
  • Josefina Dizon, University of the Philippines Los BaƱos, Philippines
  • Glenn Fernandez, Sichuan University, China
  • Mohan Geetha, The University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Azhan Hasan, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia
  • Chris Jacobson, University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
  • Aser Javier, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines
  • Gensuo Jia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
  • Joni Jupesta, Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART) Tbk, Indonesia
  • Rajendra Khanal, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
  • Golam Kibria, RMIT University, Japan
  • Poh Leong Loo, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • Karen McNamara, The University of Queensland, Australia
  • Sher Muhammar, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal
  • Hong Quan Nguyen, Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam
  • Pmd Ranga Nadeera Pallawala, Janathakshan Guarantee Limited, Sri Lanka
  • Rajiv Pandey, Forest Research Institute, India
  • Himanshu Pathak, ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, India
  • Ittipol Pawarmart, Air Quality and Noise Management Bureau, Thailand
  • SVRK Prabhakar, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan
  • Saeed Qaisrani, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Srivatsan Raghavan, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • Mahmudur Rahman, Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization, Bangladesh
  • Kabir Rasouli, University of Calgary, Canada
  • Albert Salamanca, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI-Asia), Thailand
  • Divya Sharma, Oxford Policy Management Limited, Delhi, India
  • Victor Shinde, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
  • Rudra Shrestha, SAARC Agriculture Centre, Bangladesh
  • Rajeev Kumar Singh, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan
  • Dewayany Sutrisno, Indonesian Society for Remote Sensing, Indonesia
  • Van Thu Tran Thi Van, Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam
  • Vositha Wijenayake, SLYCAN Trust (GTE) Ltd., Sri Lanka
  • Wang Xiaojun, Ministry of Water Resources, China
  • Ying Zhang, University of Sydney, Australia

Editorial Team

Xiaojun Deng, Christmas Uchiyama, and Nafesa Ismail, APN Secretariat