Understanding and Quantifying the Water-Energy-Carbon Nexus for Low Carbon Development in Asian Cities
|Project Summary||Water and energy are, separately, key priority agendas; they are being planned and managed as separate entities. Yet, it is not common to look at their linkages and optimise them. As water and energy are becoming limited resources, water footprints in energy sectors and energy footprints in water sectors are increasing being a concern in development and planning processes. In the context of cities, energy is of primary importance to urban water system management. The water infrastructures rely on energy throughout each element of the system, source abstraction, conveyance, treatment, distribution, wastewater collection, treatment and recycle/disposal. Typically, fossil fuels are also the primary sources of energy which produce a considerable amount of carbon dioxide and other Green House Gases (GHGs) and release into the atmosphere. This gives rise to the concept of nexus where water, energy and carbon can be managed under the same domain. Cities are a significant place to study this nexus because of several reasons including, high population density, complex agglomeration of infrastructures, economy, industries, technologies and its overall dynamics. Cities are also a major emitter of GHGs with the share of 71% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. Urban water sector could utilise 1 to 18% of total energy use in the city. The Urban water sector is complex and diverse which involves processes of water services delivery to different economic sectors. The high energy demand for water utilities is one of the issues in the sustainable management of water and sanitation services in developing and developed countries. This research looks into case studies in four Asian cities: Bangkok, Tokyo, Delhi and Kathmandu.lustrate the potentials of the nexus to the low carbon development in cities, and (c) based on these, we will gauze the extent and relevancy of addressing the barrier and opportunities for optimising the water-energy-carbon nexus. We will cover four Asian cities in this research: Tokyo, Bangkok, Delhi and Kathmandu.|
|Project Leader||Dr. Shobhakar Dhakal, Associate Professor, Energy Field of Study, School of Environment Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand|
|Project Collaborators||Dr. Sangam Shrestha, Assistant Professor, Water Engineering Field of Study, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of technology, Thailand, email@example.com |
Prof. Shinji Kaneko, Professor, School of International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Arun Kansal, HoD and Professor, Coca-Cola Department of Regional Water Studies, TERI University, India, email@example.com
|Countries Involved||Thailand, Japan, India and Nepal|
|Project Duration||2 Years|
|APN Funds (US$)||80600|
|Year of Completion||2017|
|Project Output|| |
Singh, P., Kansal, A., & Carliell-Marquet, C. (2016). Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment methods. Journal of Environmental Management, 165, 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.09.017
Dhakal, S., Shrestha, S., Shrestha, A., & Kaneko, S. (2015). Towards a better water-energy-carbon nexus in cities (APN Global Change Perspectives Policy Brief No. LCD-01). Kobe: Asia Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN). Retrieved from: http://www.apn-gcr.org/2015/10/26/policy-brief-towards-a-better-water-energy-carbon-nexus-in-cities-lcd-01/
Dhakal, S., Shrestha, A., Shrestha, S., Kansal, A., & Kaneko, S. (2015). Water-Energy-Carbon nexus in cities- Cases from New Delhi and Bangkok. Presented at the International Expert Workshop on Water Energy Food Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities in Mekong Region, 22-23 January 2015, Thailand: SEA-EU-Net and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT).
Shrestha, S., Dhakal, S., Shrestha, A., Kansal, A., & Kaneko, S. (2015). Water-Energy-Carbon Nexus in Cities: Cases from Bangkok, New Delhi, Tokyo. Presented at the Workshop on ‘Water Energy Food Nexus: International Cooperation and Technology Transfer’, 18 March 2015, Paris.
Shrestha, A., Dhakal, S., Shrestha, S., Kansal, A., & Kaneko, S. (2014). Understanding and Quantifying the Water, Energy and Carbon Nexus for Low Carbon Development in Asian Cities. Presented at the APN’s Low Carbon Initiative (LCI) session in 3rd Annual Meeting of Low Carbon Asia Research Network, 24-26 November 2014, Indonesia.